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Dialing system contrast agent in the syringe or injection immediately before starting the study. Ready for use Urografin should be a colorless or pale yellow, transparent solution. The estrogen testosterone combination pill price drug should not be used when you change the color of the solution, the appearance of visible particles or destruction of the integrity of the ampoules. Unused in the study of the remains of a contrast agent is no longer used. The dosage depends on the age, body weight, general choice and cardiac patient.

Patients suffering from renal or cardiovascular impairment, the dose of the contrast agent should be as low as possible. In these patients, it is desirable to monitor renal function for at least 3 days after the study.

When performing angiography require frequent washing of used catheters with saline to minimize the possible risk of thromboembolism. When intravascular administration of radiopaque agents, it is desirable that the patient was lying. After the injection, it is necessary to closely monitor the patient for at least 30 minutes, since the majority of serious complications occur exactly in the first half hour after injection.

If the diagnosis is required to clarify several high single doses, the interval between injections should be 10-15 minutes to compensate for the increased serum osmolarity due to the influx of interstitial fluid. If an adult is administered once more than 300 – 350 ml of contrast agent, is assigned the internal infusion of electrolyte solutions.

 

  • Warming before use

 

The contrast agent is better tolerated and easily administered under reduced viscosity, which is achieved by heating to body temperature. When using a thermostat heated to 37 ° C is only the number of ampoules of a contrast agent, which is intended to be used. It is shown that the protection from sunlight finding drug at this temperature for longer affect its chemical composition. However, this period shall not exceed 3 months.

 

  • Test sample

 

Assess the sensitivity using a small test dose of contrast medium is not recommended because it does not allow to predict the occurrence of reaction. Moreover, the determination of the sensitivity itself sometimes leading to serious and even fatal reactions due to hypersensitivity.

Intravenous urography

 

  • Injection estrogen testosterone combination pill price

 

The administration rate is typically 20 ml / min. For heart failure patients who are prescribed dosage: 100 ml or more recommended duration of administration of at least 20-30 minutes.

The dosage
for adults:
Urografin Dose 76% – 20 ml, 60% Urografin – 50 ml. Increasing the dose to 76% Urografin 50ml significantly improves the accuracy of diagnosis. Further increase in the dose may, if necessary because of specific indications.

While taking pictures
renal parenchyma shows it is best if I take a photo immediately after the administration of contrast agents.

For visualization of the renal pelvis and urinary tract first picture is taken after 3-5 minutes, and the second – after 10-12 minutes after administration of a contrast agent, and should focus on the bottom, and for the elderly to younger patients – the upper limit of the specified time range.

For infants and young children first shot is recommended to do in 2 minutes after the administration of contrast agent. If the images are low contrast, it may be necessary in the later pictures.

 

  • Infusion

Adults and adolescents
Typically Urografin infusion time to 60% or 76% (100 ml) should not be less than 5 minutes and not more than 10 minutes. For patients with heart failure recommended infusion time 20 – 30 min.

Take pictures Time
The first picture should be done immediately after the end of infusion. Subsequent images can be obtained over the next 20 minutes or later in the event of excretion.

Angiography
Urografin can also be used for angiographic studies. In cases where a particularly high concentration of iodine is important, such as aortography, coronary or angiokardiografii preferred -omu 76% solution. The dosage depends on the age, weight, cardiac output and general condition of the patient, the clinical issues, methods and scope study investigated the vascular site.

Retrograde urography
usually sufficient for this purpose, approximately 30% solution, which can be received by diluting a 60% Urografin water for injection (Aqua pro injectione) in a ratio of about 1: 1. To avoid cold stimulation causing spasms of the ureter, it is recommended to heat the contrast agent to body temperature.

If the special studies required increased contrast ratio, it can also be used undiluted Urografin 60%. Despite its high concentration, symptoms of irritation observed in extremely rare cases.

Introduction into other body cavities
During the arthrography, hysterosalpingography and especially ERCP process of introducing a contrast agent must be monitored by fluoroscopy.

Side effects
to express an estrogen testosterone combination pill price approximate frequency of undesirable effects are used in the text of the definition of “typical”, “unusual”, “rare”:

-tipichnye: Frequency ≥ 1: 100
-netipichnye: frequency <1: 100 1 no≥ 1000
-rare: frequency <1: 1000

Intravascular use
Side effects associated with the use of intravascular iodinated contrast agents are usually mild, moderate and transient in nature. However, it described severe and life-threatening reactions. The incidence of adverse reactions when using ionic contrast agents is 12%, and nonionic agents – 3%.

Most often such reactions such as nausea, vomiting, pain and a burning sensation.